A: Qadhahas two definitions:
(1) The definition that is in accordance to the usooliyyeen- experts in the principles of fiqh. (Qadhaa ccording to them refers to the performing of the likeness of a waajib). We understand that qadha will take place for something compulsory, and a sunnatis not waajib (compulsory). Hence, how can one make qadha of it? The mas’alahin Bahishti Zewar is based on this definition.
(2) The definition of qadha according to the fuqahaais badal (substitute). The mas’alahin Fatawaa Mahmoodiya is based on this definition. The source for this is Ad-Durr-ul-Mukhtaar and its proof is that Nabi salallallahu alayhi wasallam had also performed the qadha for the sunnats of Fajr when he had missed the Fajr salaahon Laylat-ut-Ta`rees. (Tahaawi, vol 1, pg 195)
Similarly, a hadeet happears in Tahaawi, vol 1, pg 184 wherein it is stated that two Sahaabah (Ibnu Umar and Ibnu Abbas) reached the musjid whilst the Fajr salaah was in progress. Ibnu Abbas performed the Fajr sunnats and thereafter joined the jamaat, whilst Ibnu Umar directly joined the jamaat. After the completion of the Fajr salaah, he remained seated in his place until sunrise after which he performed the qadha of the sunnats of Fajr.
A hadeeth reported in Nasai, vol 1, pg 255 states: “Whoever leaves his wird (prescribed ibaadat) at night and thereafter makes up for it between Fajr and Zuhr, it will be as if he had performed it during the night.”
The fuqahaa have also mentioned that if one was unable to perform the sunnats before Zuhr, he should perform them after Zuhr and they have termed it as qadha. They also differ with regards to whether the four rakaats should be performed before or after the two sunnats. (Fatawaa Hindiyyah, vol 1, pg 112)
It is also established that Nabi salallallahu alayhi wasallam had performed the qadhaof the Zuhr sunnats. It appears in Tahaawi, vol 1, pg 147 that Nabi salallallahu alayhi wasallam had not performed the two sunnats after Zuhr due to being occupied in a deeni (religious) matter. As a result of this, he performed the qadha of the two sunnats after the Asr salaah.
Nevertheless, qadha has the meaning of badal (substitute) in Fatawaa Mahmoodiya and not the meaning adopted by the usooliyyeen (experts of principles of fiqh).
Malfoozaat of Faqeeh-ul-Ummat 1/362